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Introduction of oracle

In general, a database management system (DBMS) must be able to reliably manage a large amount of data in a multi-user environment so that many users can concurrently access the same data. The ORACLE Server provides efficient and effective solutions for the major database features.

Basic SQL SELECT Statements

Select is the most commonly used statement in SQL. The SELECT Statement in SQL is used to retrieve or fetch data from a database. We can fetch either the entire table or according to some specified rules. The data returned is stored in a result table. This result table is also called result-set.

PL/SQL

PL/SQL (Procedural Language for SQL) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database.Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database.

Restricting

Restricted mode will only allow users with RESTRICTED SESSION privileges to access the database (typically DBA's). We use the startup restrict command to open the database in restricted mode

Sorting Data

Data sorting is any process that involves arranging the data into some meaningful order to make it easier to understand, analyze or visualize.Data is typically sorted based on actual values, counts or percentages, in either ascending or descending order, but can also be sorted based on the variable value labels.

Single-Row Functions

Oracle Single Row Functions Examples. Oracle provides single row functions to manipulate the data values. The single row functions operate on single rows and return only one result per row. In general, the functions take one or more inputs as arguments and return a single value as output.Converts column data types.

Single-Row Functions

The easiest way to see all tables in the database is to query the all_tables view: SELECT owner, table_name FROM all_tables; This will show the owner (the user) and the name of the table.

Aggregating Data Using Group Functions

Group functions are mathematical functions to operate on sets of rows to give one result per set. The types of group functions (also called aggregate functions) are: AVG, that calculates the average of the specified columns in a set of rows, COUNT, calculating the number of rows in a set.

Sub queries

subquery that returns a single value can also be listed as an object in a FROM clause listing. This is termed an inline view because when a subquery is used as part of a FROM clause, it is treated like a virtual table or view.

Manipulating Data

Data Manipulation and Control Statements. Data Manipulation Language (DML) statements access and manipulate data stored in the Oracle database. You can use them to insert, update, delete, and read data.

Creating Tables

Use the CREATE TABLE statement to create one of the following types of tables: A relational table, which is the basic structure to hold user data. An object table, which is a table that uses an object type for a column definition. An object table is explicitly defined to hold object instances of a particular type.

Managing Tables

Tables are the basic unit of data storage in an Oracle Database.You define a table with a table name, such as employees , and a set of columns. You give each column a column name, such as employee_id , last_name , and job_id ; a datatype, such as VARCHAR2 , DATE , or NUMBER ; and a width.

Enhancements to the GROUP BY Clause

Oracle GROUP BY Clause. In Oracle GROUP BY clause is used with SELECT statement to collect data from multiple records and group the results by one or more columns.

Hierarchical Queries

Hierarchical query needs a definition of how each child relates to its parent.Hierarchical queries come with operators, pseudocolumns and functions to help make sense of the hierarchy. LEVEL : The position in the hierarchy of the current row in relation to the root node.